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Physiology of flowering in plants

Physiology of Flowering








1- Introduction

The Evolution of Flowers
The origin of flowering plants
Early reproductive structures
The first flowers
Floral diversification

2- Historical Interpretations of Flower Induction and Flower Development

The foliar theory of the flower
The foliar theory in an evolutionary context
The transition to flowering
Developmental explanations of floral induction
Environmental explanations of floral induction
The florigen problem

3- Control by Nutriton and Water stress

The carbohydrate/Nitrogen relationship theory
Mineral Nutrition: Nitrogen
Mineral Nutrition: Trace Elements
Water Stress

4- Classical Theories of Induction

The Florigen Theory
Eperimental Evidence Concerning Florigen
Identity of Florigen
Modified Florigen Theories
The Theory of Floral Inhibitors
Eperimental Evidence Concerning Floral Inhibitors
Identity of Floral Inhibitors
Balance between inhibitors and promoters of Flower Initiation

5- Age and flower Initiation

The Juvenile Phase
Minimal Leaf Number
Genetical basis For Juvenility
Accounting for the juvenile Phase
   Insufficient Leaf Area
   Unfavorable ratio of immature to mature leaves
   Leaf insensitivity to daylength
    Influence of the Root System
    Meristem insensitivity of floral Promoters

6- The Photoperiodic Pathway of Floral Induction

Sensing daylight
Measuring time
Integrating light and clock signals

7- The Vernalization Pathway of Floral Induction and the Role of Gibberellin

The vernalization promotion pathway
The gibberellin promotion pathway
Does gibberellin act in the vernalization promotion pathway as well as independently?

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